Pablo Escobar, “el Patrón” Of The Medellín Cartel
It reformed following his escape from prison in 1992 and hunted him until his death in 1993. These tensions escalated in the mid-1980s when the Medellín Cartel declared war on the Colombian state. In April 1984, the nation’s then Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla was shot dead by sicarios working for Escobar. The Colombian state responded by immediately signing into law Escobar’s extradition to the United States. In response, Escobar’s hitmen murdered dozens of judges, police and several journalists in the late 1980s. During the 1989 presidential elections, Escobar’s assassins murdered the Liberal Party candidate Luis Carlos Galán Sarmiento.
- This was one of the most powerful positions in the police, rivaling even the national police chief in terms of access and influence.
- During the Medellín Cartel’s zenith in the 1980s and early 1990s, Escobar controlled nearly the entire cocaine supply chain.
- The research presented in this investigation is the result of a project funded by Canada’sInternational Development Research Centre.
- The Colombian state responded by immediately signing into law Escobar’s extradition to the United States.
- And cocaine continued to be processed and smuggled in ever-greater quantities, with the highest purity and lowest prices on record.
- Escobar beat Galeano to death with a cue stick, and had his body, along with Moncada’s, dismembered and burnt.
It is this mutually beneficial, symbiotic relationship that this case study covers. Berna’s relationship with these elites began during the hunt for Pablo Escobar. Berna was one of the founders and leaders of the PEPES, an illegal group dedicated to taking down the Medellín drug lord. González was the prototypical bureaucratic elite — a career officer who worked the government’s most important cases giving him access to huge amounts of resources, connections to politicians and international law enforcement. He was also a criminal, with ties to a powerful group of former police who were building an underworld empire of their own.
Phase Iii: ‘don Berna,’ The Paramilitary Commander 2000
In November, a bomb brought down a domestic airliner, killing all 107 on board, as Escobar mistakenly thought Liberal Party presidential candidate — and Galán’s replacement on the ticket — César Gaviria was on the flight. Then, in December, a massive car bomb was placed outside the headquarters of the secret police, the Administrative Security Department (Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad, – DAS). Throughout this period, the Medellín Cartel‘s power kept growing, as did its battle with the government and Colombia’s elites. At the heart of this conflict was the prospect of extradition to the United States.
He was from Tuluá, in the Valle del Cauca province along the Pacific Coast. Secondly, his first forays into illegality were not in the drug business, but in the Popular Liberation Army (Ejército Popular de Liberación – EPL), one of the many left-wing rebel groups that had sprung up in Colombia in the 1960s as the result of Colombia’s closed political system. The Cali Cartelinitially cooperated with the Medellín Cartel during the early 1980s to stabilize the drug market and divide territory in the United States. However, by 1988 the cartels were fighting a vicious turf war in Colombia. His lawyers haggled over details of security, establishing Escobar ‘s right to be protected by his own men and hand-picked prison officers inside the jail, with the army’s Fourth Brigade outside, and his enemies from the police banned from a three-mil e radius. President Cesar Gaviria, cancelling his trip to the Ibero-American summit meeting in Spain, took control of the operations, ordering army special forces units to storm the jail and free the hostages.
If one needed to seize an indebted drug trafficker’s possessions, such as his house, ranch, or cars, it would dispatch a lawyer to coerce or bribe people into signing over the goods. By then, Berna was part of the paramilitary “Estado Mayor” and had, thanks to his power in the drug trafficking world, far more friends than Rodrigo 00 in the paramilitaries. For his part, Rodrigo 00 had refused to involve himself in drug trafficking and had therefore earned the distrust of almost every other paramilitary leader who was feeding off the drug trade. Incredible as it may seem, by 2002, the AUC had become the main regulator and arbiter of the cocaine trade, with more reach and power than Pablo Escobar had ever had.
Fernando Diniz quando atuava pelo Fluminense já praticava os da psicologia.
Ele sempre foi muito calmo como jogador.
Que pena que o "paciente" Galeano e o time adversário não entendeu muito bem.
Que triste, não é mesmo? pic.twitter.com/4gMYvh6VNc
— Seu Bartô (@seubarto) May 24, 2022
The killing of Upegui was part of a power play by Daniel Alberto Mejía, alias “Danielito,” who was one of Berna’s key leaders in the Oficina de Envigado, and had demobilized with one of his paramilitary units. In sum — with the Oficina de Envigado, his paramilitary units, his gangs and his bureaucratic elite connections — Berna had created the most powerful and sophisticated organized crime syndicate in Colombian history. The Search Bloc was formed in 1989, as Escobar’s war against the state reached its height. After Escobar surrendered in 1991, the members were dispersed and rejoined regular units.